Elle Cochran, Council Member, Maui, Hawaii joined us on Smart Health Talk December 22nd to discuss a bill for mandatory GMO labeling for all food sold in Hawaii and her tour of the Monsanto Genetically Modified Organism Research Farm last week. Even after defeat, Elle refuses to give up.
Council Member Elle Cochran brought the measure to pass mandatory GMO food labeling before council members, saying it arose from concerned citizens who “believe in their right to choose.”
“Everybody has the right to know what they feed themselves and their families,” she said.
Critical Temperatures for Food ServiceThe following temperature guidelines, based on the federal Food and Drug Administration’s 2009 Food Code, apply at various stages of food preparation and serving. Strictly maintaining these temperatures is particularly important when dealing with potentially hazardous foods. These foods, which favor bacterial growth, include meat, poultry, eggs, seafood, dairy products, cut melon, raw seed sprouts, garlic-in-oil mixtures, cooked rice or potatoes and others.
Remember the danger zone: 41º F - 135º F. Potentially hazardous foods exposed to this temperature range for a cumulative total of more than 4 hours are not safe to eat.
Refrigerated potentially hazardous foods41º F or belowFrozen foods0º F or below
Check temperatures of food upon receipt and reject any potentially hazardous foods that fall outside of accepted ranges.
Put perishable foods away promptly.
Refrigeration (air) temperature38º F or belowRefrigeration (food) temperature41º F or belowSeafood30º F - 34º FFresh produce41º F - 45º FDeep chill26º F - 32º FFreezer (food) temperature0º F or belowDry storage50º F - 70º F
Use open shelving and do not cover food with foil.
Checks foods in multiple locations throughout a cold storage area; temperature may not be uniform.
For ready-to-eat foods prepared on-site, label and comply with storage time standards (seven days maximum for food held at 41º F or below).
In the refrigerator41º F or belowUnder running water70º F or below (water temperature)
Do not thaw at room temperature.
If a microwave is used to thaw food, the food must be cooked immediately after thawing.
Beef roast145º F for minimum of 3 minutes or 140º F for 12 minutesor 130º F for 121 minutesBeef, steaks, pork, ham, fish, seafood (filets, chops or intact pieces), bacon145º F for minimum of 15 secondsGround beef or pork, chopped/flaked meat155º F for minimum of 15 secondsPoultry, stuffed foods165º F for minimum of 15 secondsEggs Cooked to hold155º F for minimum of 15 seconds Cooked to order145º F for minimum of 15 secondsFoods cooked in microwave165º F, hold for minimum of 2 minutesFruits, vegetables135º F (no minimum time)
For combination dishes, choose the ingredient with the most stringent standard and follow it.
Measure temperature in the thickest part of the food.
Cooling Potentially Hazardous Food
From hot temperatureCool to 70º F within two 2 hours; cool to 41º F or below within 4 more hours (6 hours total)From room temperatureCool to 41º F within 4 hours
Do not cool at room temperature.
Use a blast chiller or ice bath to hasten cooling.
Divide food into small units or use a shallow pan.
Hot food135º F or aboveCold food41º F or below
Keep food covered.
Stir hot food frequently.
Store utensil in food.
Take actual food temperature; do not rely on a thermostat setting.
Check temperature frequently (at least every 2 hours).
Do not use hot holding equipment to heat or reheat food.
Leftovers165º F minimumCold food41º F or below
Food must reach temperature within 2 hours.
More Useful Temperatures
Handwashing water110º FSanitizing solutions (heat)170º F for minimum of 30 secondsSanitizing solutions (chemical)75º F - 120º FTo learn more about foodborne illness and ways to prevent it, talk to your health care professional, your local health department or the Illinois Department of Public Health, Division of Food, Drugs and Dairies.
Safe Minimum Cooking TemperaturesUse this chart and a food thermometer to ensure that meat, poultry, seafood, and other cooked foods reach a safe minimum internal temperature.
Remember, you can’t tell whether meat is safely cooked by looking at it. Any cooked, uncured red meats – including pork – can be pink, even when the meat has reached a safe internal temperature.
Why the Rest Time is ImportantAfter you remove meat from a grill, oven, or other heat source, allow it to rest for the specified amount of time. During the rest time, its temperature remains constant or continues to rise, which destroys harmful germs.
CategoryFoodTemperature (°F) Rest Time Ground Meat & Meat MixturesBeef, Pork, Veal, Lamb160NoneTurkey, Chicken165NoneFresh Beef, Veal, LambSteaks, roasts, chops1453 minutesPoultryChicken & Turkey, whole165NonePoultry breasts, roasts165NonePoultry thighs, legs, wings165NoneDuck & Goose165NoneStuffing (cooked alone or in bird)165NonePork and HamFresh pork1453 minutesFresh ham (raw)1453 minutesPrecooked ham (to reheat)140NoneEggs & Egg DishesEggsCook until yolk and white are firmNoneEgg dishes160NoneLeftovers & CasserolesLeftovers165NoneCasseroles165NoneSeafoodFin Fish145 or cook until flesh is opaque and separates easily with a fork.NoneShrimp, lobster, and crabsCook until flesh is pearly and opaque.NoneClams, oysters, and musselsCook until shells open during cooking.NoneScallopsCook until flesh is milky white or opaque and firm.None
CHILL: At room temperature, bacteria in food can double every 20 minutes. The more bacteria there are, the greater the chance you could become sick. So, refrigerate foods quickly because cold temperatures keep most harmful bacteria from multiplying.
Get the latest tips and techniques to keep these foods safe and prevent food poisoning.
Meat Raw meat may contain bacteria, such as E. coli, salmonella, and listeria, or parasites. Thorough cooking destroys these harmful organisms, but meat can become contaminated again if it is not handled and stored properly.
Turkey Turkey is often associated with holidays and parties. But, turkey can also be associated with foodborne illness if it is not thawed, prepared, cooked, and stored properly.
Seafood Like raw meat, raw seafood may contain bacteria that can be destroyed only by cooking. Some seafood may also contain toxins such as mercury which may be harmful for young children or an unborn baby.
Eggs and Egg Products Fresh eggs must be handled carefully. Even eggs with clean, uncracked shells may occasionally containsalmonella. To prevent food poisoning, keep eggs refrigerated, cook eggs until yolks are firm, and cook foods containing eggs thoroughly.
Fresh Fruits, Vegetables, and JuicesFresh produce may come in contact with harmful bacteria from many sources, from contaminated soil and water in the fields to a contaminated cutting board in the kitchen. Fruit and vegetable juices must be treated to kill bacteria.
Baby Food and Infant FormulaInfants and young children are particularly vulnerable to foodborne illness because their immune systems are not developed enough to fight off infections. That's why extra care should be taken when handling and preparing their food and formula.
Pet FoodLike human food, pet food may contain harmful bacteria (such as salmonella) or toxins (such as melamine). If pet food is not handled properly, both pets and humans may be at risk for foodborne illness.